ORIGINAL ARTICLE LINK W/REFERENCES IN-TACT:
A study based on the findings of researchers at Uppsala University in Sweden got me interested in a possible link between Chromosome disorders and Brain Health. Even though the study demonstrated that Y-chromosome loss occurred in Chronic Smokers, that is, that in Male smokers Y-Chromosomes were not detected in their blood cells - there were also other, more significant implications.
The implication was that the Y-Chromosome loss could - like many other cellular abnormalities, lead to increased risk of Cancer . Because cellular abnormalities are also present in Mental Disorders - I decided to research a little more.
...Well, A LOT more.
Turns out that Y-Chromosome loss has also been found in....
Those that successfully carry out a suicide .
Alzheimer's Patients .
Obsessive-Compulsive Individuals (some) .
Those with other, diverse Brain abnormalities .
When I have a hunch: I'm usually right...
The National Institute of Health (NIH) published two main articles that everyone reading this article should read. They form the basis for most of this article...the difference is we made it easier - and more interesting. It is imperative to understand the information contained within the below articles in order to understand the concept of Chromosomes in Human Health, bodily/cellular Homeostasis and Disease, including Brain Disease.
The third article is also heavily important and expands in many ways on the first two, but the first two are prerequisites to understand fully the third, and how it relates to the Gut-Immune-Brain connection and links that all to chromosomes!
The Role of the Y Chromosome in Brain Function (NIH/PubMed)
Sex chromosome abnormalities and psychiatric diseases (NIH/PubMed)
Loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in blood cells is associated with increased risk for disease and mortality in aging men (NIH/PubMed)
Y-Chromosome and Violence
Does anyone remember when a bunch of dubious reporters and pseudoscientists attempted to claim that if you "had an extra Y-chromosome you may be more prone to violence or even becoming a killer???".
Of course, it was debunked.
What we later find out is that IF anything - its an extra X-Chromosome (passed from Mother to Child) that can lead to increased propensity for Aggression/Violence .
Not to mention the Warrior-gene is Maternally transmitted - and this gene has been associated with Violence, in Males .
...With that being said, it is hard to argue against the percentage of people in Prison who have an "extra-Y" who seem to also engage in more brutal and consistent acts of Aggression .
Problem is - we don't know if it is BECAUSE of the extra-Y or because of other similarities NOT CHECKED FOR in their genetic code...or possibly even epigenetic (drug or chemical induced changes in genes) or post-transcriptional changes (perhaps adaptational).
Indeed, other studies such as this one, have examined more in-depth a connection between specific Y-Chromosome abnormalities in certain families with other risk factors, and violence. Racial differences may also play a role [!].
Another Review made some other interesting points - perhaps elucidating a greater point that it is the combination of YYX-related "foundational" changes + other more historic (even ancient!) gene mutations that lay the groundwork and defective peddles for Abnormal Social and Violent behavior.
X-Chromosome, Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Cognitive/Intellectual Superiority or Inferiority
Although not the same, the X-Chromosome is passed from the Mother to a Male Child, and one from the Father to a female child and mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) is pretty universally, from the Mother to a Child of either sex.
...Whereas the X-Chromosome has been linked to Mental and Brain Disorders, the mtDNA concept is much more complex and we will get into that later in this article.
What we know is that *primarily*, X-Chromosome's can shape parts of the Brain concerning executive functions and decision making - X-Chromosome's contain information and sequences that allows the Prefrontal Cortex to develop properly (thickness and volume during early brain development) [!].
These are classified as "imprinting effects".
The X-Linked genes/code also contains unique sequences, which separately influences smaller, but arguably more important parameters like neurotransmitter receptor concentrations and thus influences specifically, Mental Functioning.
...A parameter one could broadly speak of as pertaining to mainly "Stability" and "Clear-headedness" in this context as well as how one incorporates information into their lives...interestingly, a delusional symptom known as "Ideas of Reference" where one inappropriately and (often) dramatically incorporates elements; voices, words etc from TV/Media into their Life as if it has a direct meaning TO THEM - and directly matters as a "Message for God" or the Like.
Is often linked to X-Chromosome defects in communication areas of the Brain..which encourages irrational Beliefs; whether expressed as "OCD" or Racing Thoughts or a 'true' Psychotic episode. In some cases, it is too many X-Chromosomes that can lead to Psychotic behaviors or Beliefs; including "Ideas of Reference".
[Gotz M. Results of the present study: XXX womenin Gotz M (ed): The Psychiatric Consequences of Sex Chromosome Abnormalities: A Cohort Study Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh; 199662–68.]
This may indicate that, given the conformational roles of secondary genes in Respective Brain-regions associated with each Chromosomes distinct *primary* roles - that the Y-Chromosome can also be seen as a necessary "stability factor". That is - of course in the Gender Relevant; Males.
X-linked genes and Mental Functioning (Human Molecular Genetics, Volume 14, Issue suppl_1, 15 April 2005, Pages R27–R32)
Many would wonder now how this all relates to either Superior or Inferior "Cognitive Function" domain.
Well since Ideas of Reference are (generally) not something that promotes 'true' Productivity, it should be seen as Inferior Cognitive Function - unless proven otherwise for that individual - but delusional thoughts simply can not be generalized as having "benefit" - even if they "bridge the gap" for Success...the motivational deficit already present within that person hints at a Cognitive Dysfunction that will, if not at the present moment, then later on in that persons Life, become a severe hindrance.
On the other hand, if an X-Chromosome contains the so-called "Genius Equilibrium" code - present in about 1% of European individuals [!] (mainly Swedish & Norman-French) and about 5% of Jewish descent individuals [!] (FOX03A Gene) [Reference 1] [Reference 2]. Then Belief oriented behavior, Grandiose or not, could be portrayed as simply "ECCENTRIC" or "DRAMATIC" - and thus in Donald Trumps case - can be conferring utter 'Cognitive Superiority'.
The PROOF is in the RESULTS for that Persons Life.
A number of X-linked genes [!] in East Asia may be the key to their frequently claimed unprecedentedly HIGH-INTELLIGENCE level and HIGH Average IQ level [see here].
X-Chromosome and Emotional Conditioning/Adaptation
The X-Chromosome plays a role in genes relating to emotional conditioning and adaptation as well as Social Function in Men & Women  .
Traits such as Resilience  and even darker traits like Machiavellinism or lack of empathy - all of which are seen in Psychopaths, may actually be more linked to X-Chromosome related protein changes . Reading into that study, Klinefelter or XXY-males often* have reduced Empathy and eye-contact.
A Group of Atypical Presentation "Enhanced" Adaptation XXY-Males
Although most Men with an extra-X chromosome have some degree of Intellectual/Cognitive Impairment, sometimes lower IQ's and increased susceptibility to Autism or other "emotional cognition disorders" - there is a small population of XXY-males/Klinefelter Males that seems to exhibit the atypical presentation; Enhanced Adaptation and longevity as well as Superior Cognitive function . One case also had a very HIGH IQ .
These could simply be isolated cases and attributed to other factors, but it could also be related to a parallel genetic composition occurring on the mitochondrial DNA in these Men. Since X-Chromosomes are, again, passed from Mother-to-Male-Child and and mtDNA, the same...it would seem that in some cases (few) there can be a "benefit" to alterations in X-encoding in the Male.
...Problem is that usually stops at Cognitive function and does not impact other negatives of having an Extra-X, like reduced Testosterone levels in Men  and infertility .
In addition, extra-X or "Double X" syndrome in Males/Men seems to increase risk of AutoImmune diseases like Lupus .
See: The Cognitive Phenotype in Klinefelter Syndrome: A Review of the Literature Including Genetic and Hormonal Factors (NIH/PubMed)
The Physically/Mentally Weakened "FRAGILE MALE"
The whole 'Momma's Boy' or "weak male" hypothesis - marked by reduced/insignificant social status and introverted, shy/anxious or isolated personality *can* be associated with an Extra-X - although "fragile" in this context is usually talking about bone/muscle abnormalities in XXY-males  .
The research behind this hypothesis and the X-Chromosome linked issues could be related to Y-Chromosome loss as well - rather than simply an "EXTRA-X" . Thus, XXY-Males or Klinefelter Syndrome Males (diagnosed) are at EXTRA risk if they say, start Smoking or engage in heavy usage of Nicotine.
This appears to be at least partly, related to reduced Testosterone levels in these AFFECTED Men  and altered Amygdala nerve activities . NeuroCognitive problems in XXY-males may also stem from altered hormonal balance (imbalance) and brain regional differences .
Since Soy and other PHYTO (plant-derived) Estrogens can have unpredictable, sometimes catastrophic effects on Mental Health & Personality - as seen in "Soy-Boy" Phenomenon - it is reasonable to assert that neurotic, pessimistic, negativistic and even Sociopathic traits can be seen as a unique endocrine disorder related to Estrogen-dominance in Men & Women.
See Funny (but Serious!) Video Here.
AUTISM AND THE X-CHROMOSOME
The X-Marks the Spot with Regards to Autism...
For years we've seen studies linking the X-Chromosome to Autism - but it is complex, in females with Autism the association is there, but less clear .
In Males, constituting the Gender with a larger incidence of Autism .
Its possible, that altered cell homestasis and cell membrane instability pre-and-post Birth in the developing Brain, caused by deletions, inactivations or X-induced overexpressions of candidate genes may be the central problem wherein Autism develops .
Since the X-Chromosome, to a large degree, determines developing Brain Structure (though not wholly so) - it is reasonable to assert that abnormalities may lead to the congenital hyperserotonemia found in Autism , and as well, possibly other larger changes  .
See: Genetics of Autism Spectrum Disorders (NIH/PubMed)
IS IT REALLY JUST A MATTER OF SEX-CHROMOSOMES???
As mentioned in previous paragraphs - the sex chromosome contribution to Brain/Mental Disease states is not SUFFICIENT to explain in totality the occurrence of the various disorders - just that they are a CONTRIBUTING FACTOR...what happens At first (conception), in-between (prenatally/during pregnancy), post-birth and in early years is all CRITICAL. Things happen at different times and there is no single explanation that fits all.
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM COMMUNICATION PICTURE
What is it that makes Y-Chromosome LOSS lead to INCREASED risk for CANCER!??
It is - at least in part - defective "immune surveillance" caused by loss of Y-Chromosome mediated immune cell "programming" changes...that is - the Y-CHROMOSOME appears essential for ACTIVE Immune-cell regeneration and surveillance activities .
Think about it like this...you are at a Hospital, Patients constantly coming and going, YOU are an EMPLOYEE - what is ONE DUTY you constantly have? Making sure shit is clean! You inadvertently, have to hunt and destroy germs in attempt to keep people from getting sick (doesn't always work in that setting though!).
You have to have ENERGY to some degree, certainly focus, to make sure every table, seat and bed is CLEAN. Well - your immune cells have to have Energy and Focus too - they need nutrients and in-between MEALS just as we do...
Our meals...guarantee THEIR meals.
...But they also need the Y-Chromosome, which initiates and helps maintain the whole process .
Many Mental Disorders begin with the Immune System.
Anxiety and Depression: Linkages with Viral Diseases (NIH/PubMed)
The concept of depression as a dysfunction of the immune system (NIH/PubMed)
From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain (NIH/PubMed)
VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN BLOOD IN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER (NIH/PubMed)
Herpesviruses, Inflammatory Markers and Incident Depression in a Longitudinal Study of Detroit Residents (NIH/PubMed)
Herpes Simplex Type I (HSV-1) Infection of the Nervous System: Is an Immune Response a Good Thing? (NIH/PubMed)
That is VERY clearly demonstrated as HIV/AIDS Patients develop a multitude of Psychiatric Complains and Disorders + have higher than normal rates of neurodegenerative disorders      .
That is demonstrated with Herpes Simplex Viruses, which infiltrate the "neurological immune system" and destroy RAPHE NUCLEI neurons - often leading to Depression and OCD   .
It is demonstrated as when over-active immune systems, with or without an OFFICIAL autoimmune disorder, can lead to INFLAMMATION related Psychiatric disorders   .
! THE "GENETIC HISTORY" PICTURE !
"No I don't necessarily mean we Are Reincarnated as a 15th Century WarLord!"
While many of our Ancestors have had interesting pasts (no doubt all of them) - not every one of our Ancestors lived a Life as a Warrior, or exposing themselves to many Germs, or Traveling abroad so much that they interact with so many germs so as to create a state of "Cell-Memory" passed down to descendants.
...I do believe that certain adaptational traits, that is, Resistance to temperature extremes and Pain, in particular, can be passed down from "Warrior-Ancestors".
However, it is difficult, sometimes almost impossible, to tell WHICH Warrior passed down which gene and when - and how - and which chromosome, and which part of DNA, and thus which sequence, and thus which proteins as a result of that sequence.
You see...it really is THAT Complicated.
You can "inherit" certain genes from either Parent, or there are some that influence behavior that you can ABSOLUTELY, assuredly only inherit from ONE-Parent, on ONE-Chromosome (Warrior Gene etc).
There are times where you get a COPY of a certain gene from BOTH parents - then you are what we call a "homozygote" or plural; homozygous for a certain gene.
In some cases...being a homozygote can be a good thing, say you possess the immune cell mutation "Delta-32" and you get a Copy from BOTH Parents...this renders you almost 100% Immune from being infected with HIV [!], without regard to number of exposures, and as well provides resistance to other germs like Smallpox and possibly bubonic Plague (less clear on that one though!).
Genomic Patterns of Homozygosity in Worldwide Human Populations
FLAWS IN TREATMENT METHODS FOR XXY/KLINEFELTER MALES/PATIENTS
Although at times I have great faith in the Medical System to do its job and to efficiently treat, even complex disorders, not all Physicians follow a reasonable code-of-logic.
If following the literature, obviously Testosterone-treatment is mechanistically the greatest advantage for an XXY-Male, but if these individuals are also MARKED by Androgen-Insensitivity syndromes, where their body simply DOES NOT use or CONVERT Androgens *properly*...
It would seem a "RECEPTOR-SENSITIZER" + Pure DHT-related compounds would be the way to go...for these individuals.
L-Carnitine-L-Tartrate (mainly) + Acetyl-L-Carnitine (for brain) can boost Androgen (hormone) Receptors [see here].
Pure DHT, in the form of Masteron (drostanolone) injections can saturate without need to convert, the newly built androgen receptors. Mesterolone (Proviron) an oral DHT-tablet, taken by Mouth, has also been used in Klinefelters Syndrome, with moderate success [see here].
Something like DNA-Force of Cell-Fuzion by InfoWars to rejuvenate DNA/Receptor cycles on a mitochondrial level - may be the best route and seems to be consistent with the most conclusive studies [see here] on DNA repair in relation to Sex Chromosome Abnormalities.
***These methods of course have not been tested in direct combination in a large-scale STUDY however, there are NO negative interactions between them and each method alone, from 1 to 3 has shown some MAJOR efficacy in treating XXY-related disorders...mainly Endocrine but also Cognitive [see here].
Carnitine-deficiency is also found in just about every infertile male [!] (side-note).
In this article we have explored many aspects of Chromosomal Disorders - mainly diving into the following Core Concepts (take-backs).
That defects in Y-Chromosomes, loss of Y-Chromosomes (as with smokers) and other Y-abnormalities working towards a "deficient" picture, negatively impact the immune system; both regeneration and surveillance, and this can give rise to viral infections which exploit such a vulnerability - that otherwise may have not made their way into the Brain nor hindered any aspect of Cognitive/Intellectual function IF they were already present.
That is to say, that a long-term Smoker, may then have loss of Y-Chromosomes, not realizing that a few months down the road, or maybe years (if they are lucky) - that the elusive T.Gondii germ hiding in their blood, or that nasty Cold Sore, as a result of their SMOKING-induced Y-chromosome loss - all of a sudden EVOLVE and they fall ill to a new pattern of Mental Illness and perhaps later on...a neurodegenerative disease like Parkinson's Disease (PD)or Alzheimer's Disease - as a result of an unchecked infection, that COULD have been "CHECKED" if one didn't DESTROY their Y-Chromosomes by Smoking or otherwise USING Tobacco products.
That sex chromosomes carry DNA that impacts Brain Structure & development and heavily influences Behavior as a result. Every Castle is built differently, likewise, every Brain is built differently, the size of regions thus the and structure of which - is directly related to the Behavior and Personality of the Person in question.
That parts of code, that is genetic sequences, can be altered, carry "inactivation" variants - silencing commands or other such variants that influence neurotransmitters and thus susceptibility to Mental Illness and other Brain Disorders.
X-Linked Genes; such as the MAO-Variant "Warrior-Gene" can predispose one to DEFENSIVE [!] or PROVOCATION-related Violence/Aggression [see here], including "negative face reaction" - and increase Risk-taking behavior [!] - though this gene can also promote "good-assessment of risk" and thus can translate to "good judgement" or effective Judgement calls...THAT'S WHY PSYCHOPATHS are SUCH EFFECTIVE BUSINESS OWNERS!!!
That abnormal forms of Cognition (Paranoid Cognition and Ideas of Reference) can be related to intelligence and yet can be seen as Inferior Cognition or Superior Cognition. That each, would depend on the individual and also that these "abnormal" forms of Cognition can be related to specific attributes/sequences contained on the X-Chromosome.
That Y-Chromosomes can play a role as a "Stability Factor" and thus can act to to provide a functional and stable Brain function and internal 'pace'. That 'missing' and / or 'deleted' Y-Chromosomes can lead to Anxiety Disorders [!], Schizophrenia [!] and other particularly severe Mental Illnesses. Other chromosomal studies such as this one in an Icelandic population sample justify this research.
***OTHER CENTRAL SOURCES/REFERENCES***
Common Genetic Factors Found in 5 Mental Disorders (National Institute of Health/NIH/PubMed)
Brain study confirms gene mutation link to psychiatric disorders (Science Daily)
Major mental illnesses unexpectedly share brain gene activity, raising hope for better diagnostics and therapies (ScienceMag)
Role of testosterone and Y chromosome genes for the masculinization of the human brain. (NIH/PubMed)
Thinking positively: The genetics of high intelligence (NIH/PubMed)
Triple X syndrome: a review of the literature (NIH/PubMed)
Large study uncovers genes linked to intelligence (The Conversation)
The highly intelligent Normans? (Intelligence, Personality and Genius Blog)
Scientists identify gene linking brain structure to intelligence. (NEWS: Kings College London)
Intelligence Is Inherited Only from Your Mother? (SNOPES: Fact Check!)
Five novel mutations of the protein S active gene (PROS 1) in 8 Norman families. (NIH/PubMed)
Anglo-Norman Medicine (NIH/PubMed)
The parent-of-origin of the extra X chromosome may differentially affect psychopathology in Klinefelter syndrome. (NIH/PubMed)
Danish DNA could be key to happiness. (Science Daily)
The ATXN1 and TRIM31 genes are related to intelligence in an ADHD background: Evidence from a large collaborative study totaling 4,963 Subjects. (NIH/PubMed)
Intelligence: A Unifying Construct for the Social Sciences
Richard Lynn & Tatu Vanhanen (ULSTER Institute For Social Research)
Chinese project probes the genetics of genius. (Nature)
In/Tags: chromosome disorders and psychiatric disorders, chromosome disorders and brain, y-chromosome loss and schizophrenia, y chromosome deletion and mental illness, x-linked psychiatric diseases 2018, chromosomes and sociopathic behavior, dna repair sex chromosome abnormalities.